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Jurassic Episode 1: Allosaurus

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Allosaurus

Description:

Allosaurus was among the first dinosaurs to be discovered. Its fossils are abundant, making it a favorite of paleontologists and dinosaur watchers.

allosaurus

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74 individual dinosaurs

This large theropod (bipedal-carnivorous dinosaur) is Utah's state fossil. He lived between 155.7 and 150.8 million years ago, at the end of the Jurassic period. Allosaurus, the most common dinosaur fossil in Utah The Cleveland-Lloyd quarry houses the largest concentration of Jurassic dinosaur bone fragments in the world.

According to the US Bureau of Land Management, 46 of the 74 dinosaurs discovered at the quarry are Allosaurus specimens. The Morrison Formation is located in Wyoming and Colorado, and contains the majority of Allosaurus fossils.

Fossils thought to be related to Allosaurus have been found in many other places around the world, including in Siberia, Tanzania and Portugal.


According to a study


Outside A. fragilis, it is unknown how many other species of Allosaurus have existed – as many as eight different species have been proposed over the past 30 years. “Allosaurids from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation are grouped into a single genus with a few species,” said paleontologist Matthew Mossbrucker, director and chief curator of the Morrison Museum of Natural History. "But the reality of the diversity of these animals is unknown."

Only a handful of species are considered valid at any given time, although valid species are still debated. Currently, there are four "unambiguous" Allosaurus species in North America (A. fragilis, A. atrox, A. jimmadseni, and A. lucasi), according to a 2014 study published in the journal Volumina Jurassica.



Allosaurus was a huge carnivore. According to an analysis by A. fragilis published by the Utah Geological Survey Bulletin in 1976, the largest specimens could have exceeded T. rex in size. They were 12 to 13 meters long and 4.5 to 5 meters high. Although Allosaurus weight estimates vary, models of the A. fragilis "Big Al" specimen indicate that the dinosaur weighed more than 1,500 kilograms as an individual, according to a 2009 study published by Palaeontologia Electronica.


According to a 2006 study published in the Journal of Morphology, Allosaurus reached its adult size around the age of 15. He lived to be 28.


The constitution of the body

Allosaurus had a shorter neck and a longer, more elongated skull than other large meat-eating dinosaurs. It had small horns that extended from the extensions of the lacrimal bones of the skull, but this was different from other theropods. The ridges ran from the nasal bones to join the horns.

There were dozens of sharp teeth in the dinosaur's mouth, front and back.Five teeth were found in the bones that formed the end of the snout (the premaxilla), while the main bone bearing the teeth of the upper jaw (the maxilla) and the bone bearing the teeth of the lower jaw (the dentition) each contained 14 to 17 teeth The 1976 analysis indicates that teeth were easily lost during feeding, and could be quickly (and continuously) replaced.

Two powerful hind legs supported the massive body of the Allosaurus and a large tail. Each foot was supported by three supporting feet and an internal spur. According to a 2007 study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, models suggest Allosaurus could run at speeds of up to 33.8 kilometers per hour.

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